Jeff Black


Dr. Jeff Black
(707) 826-3439
WDFS - Game Pens entry block

Research Interests

Conservation and management of waterfowl and wetland dependent species. Evolution of social behavior and mating systems (e.g. mate choice, pair bonds, parental care).

I am interested in describing how animals are distributed in space and time, whether through the need of acquiring resources or to avoid competitors/predators, and why some individuals are faithful to mates and territories while others readily take advantage of alternative options. I strive to convey the realization that evolutionary processes acting on individuals drive the distribution and size of wildlife populations. This pursuit includes assessment of the evolution and maintenance of individual attributes like health, stature, experience, personality traits, and secondary sexual characteristics (crests, color patches, etc). My research approach combines theory, experimentation, and long-term field studies, which often includes citizen science volunteers. 

Prof Black's Research Pages

Interested in joining in the lab to for an Honors Thesis or Masters degree?

Pursing an Honors Thesis or MS is primarily about the research question you'd like to investigate in the field. If you like the look of our long-term studies and want to pursue research in the 'Black Lab' then let me know what you would like to study and why. Applicants must include a writing sample in the form of a 1-2 page pre-proposal outlining a research question (including problem/phenomenon, hypotheses, methods) when sending/emailing me their initial letter of interest and Curriculum Vitae. Be sure to mention funding sources if you have them. If requested, you will send a formal application to CNRS Graduate Studies.

MS candidates in the ‘Black Lab’ ask questions from an evolutionary perspective contributing to journals like Animal Behaviour, Behavioral Ecology, Ethology, Journal of Wildlife Management, Northwestern Naturalist, and Wildfowl. See below for a complete list of current and previous grad student projects and publications. 


  • PhD, Zoology, University of Wales, Cardiff, UK, 1987 
  • Cert. Ed. (Certificate in Education), Hiram College, Ohio, 1982
  • BA, Biology/Zoology, Hiram College, Ohio, 1982


  • Humboldt Medal: Scholar of the Year 2014
  • Who’s Who in Science & Engineering 2011
  • FCAS - Fellow, California Academy of Sciences 2009
  • Full Professorship, Humboldt State University 2003
  • DSc - Doctorate of Science, University of Wales, Cardiff 2001
  • Outstanding Contribution to Humanity Award: Hiram College 1995

Courses Taught

WLDF 210 - Intro to Wildlife Conservation & Administration
WLDF 309 - Case Studies in Environmental Ethics
WLDF 311 - Wildlife Techniques
WLDF 420 - Wildlife Ecology & Management (Waterfowl)
WLDF 475 - Wildlife Ethology
WLDF 490/495 - Field Problems (Senior Thesis) & Honors Thesis
WLDF 580 - Behavioral Ecology

Current Graduate Students

Name Thesis
Charlotte NormanPhoto of Charlotte Norman
Tylor Bell RogersPhoto of Tylor Bell Rogers
Ivonne Romerophoto of Ivonne Romero
Gina CulverGina Culver
Whitney Vickersphoto of whitney vickers

Former Graduate Students

Name Thesis
Shaun Thornton
Brian Fagundes
Jessica Guenther
Jessica Barger
Kachina Rowland
Matt Delgado
Elizabeth Morata
Genevieve Rozhon
Kelly Commons 
Trinity Tippin 
Derek Harvey 
Brendan Leigh 
Bryan Daniels 
Josh Cocke 
Betsy Elkinton
Will Goldenberg 
Katlin Overeem 
Pia Gabriel 
Christina Rockwell 
Jen Terry Zalewski 
Jeff Zirpoli 
Kyle Spragens 
Chris West 
Dominic Bachman 
Susannah Ferson 
Emily Bjerre 
Anne Mini 
Ken Griggs 
Jeff Moore 
Derek Lee 
John Quinn 
Friederike Woog
Glynn Young
Friederike Woog
Sharmila Choudhury 



Harvey T, Gabriel P, Black JM 2024. Propensity of predator mimicry in Steller’s jays. Birds 5:173-189;


Rose T, Vickers WE, Cardenas SA, Black JM 2023. North American River Otter diet includes invasive Sacramento Pikeminnow and herpetofauna on South Fork Eel River, Northern California. Northwestern Naturalist 104:229-241.


Black JM 2022. North Coast Otters - public arts initiative: a commemorative auction catalog, September 2021. Cal Poly Humboldt Press, Arcata, CA, USA. Download.

Burris WM, Kinziger AP, Black JM and Brown RN 2022. Knemidokoptes mites and their effects on gripping position of the feet of Steller’s jays (Cyanocitta stelleri). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 58:859-868.


Harvey D & Black JM 2021. Solvers and scroungers: innovative problem solving in wild Steller’s jays. Behaviour 158:99-122.

Shaughnessy FJ, Ferson SL, Frimodig AJ, Barton DC, Hurst M & Black JM 2021. Growth and flowering responses of eelgrass to simulated grazing and fecal addition by brant geese. Ecosphere


Chin A & Black JM 2020. Behavior of the Northern River Otters in relation to social group size and pup presence: results from 15 years of Citizen Science. Northwestern Naturalist 101:158–167.


Daniels BL, Ward DH & Black JM 2019. Activity budgets, daily energy expenditure and energetic model of Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans during winter and spring along the Lower Alaska Peninsula. Wildfowl 69:134–159.


Griggs KM & Black JM 2017. Allocation of parental care by Western Canada Geese Branta canadensis moffittiWildfowl 67, 44-59.


Black JM, Wampole E & Mayer J 2016. Fifteen years of river otter monitoring by citizen science volunteers in northern California: Litter size. Northwestern Naturalist 97:226-236.

Cocke J, Alton S & Black JM 2016. Observations of Aleutian Cackling Geese (Branta hutchinsii leucopareia) breeding on Buldir Island, Alaska: forty-seven years after the rediscovery of a remnant population. Wildfowl 66:113–126.

Goldenberg W, George TL & Black JM 2016. Space use and behavior of Steller’s jays in campgrounds and non-campground sites within Redwood National and State Parks. Condor 118, 532–541.


Kalinowski RS, Gabriel PO & Black JM 2015. Who’s watching influences caching effort in wild Steller’s jays (Cyanocitta stelleri). Animal Cognition DOI: 10.1007/s10071-014-0780-x

Spragans KA, Black JM & Johnson M 2015. Aleutian Cackling Goose Branta hutchinsii leucopareia use of pastures in relation to livestock management. Wildfowl 65, 31-50.

Stillman RA, Wood KA, Gilkerson W, Elkinton E, Black JM, Ward DH, & Petrie M 2015. Predicting effects of environmental change on a migratory herbivore. Ecosphere 6:art114.


Black JM, Prop J & Larsson K 2014. The Barnacle Goose. T & AD Poyser / Bloomsbury, London.

Overeem K, Gabriel PA, Zirpoli J & Black JM 2014. Steller sex: infidelity and sexual selection in a social corvid (Cyanocitta stelleri). Plos One 9(8):e105257. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105257


Brzeski K, Szykman Gunther M & Black JM 2013. Evaluating river otter demography using non-invasive genetic methods. Journal of Wildlife Management 77, 1523-1531.

Elkinton E, Lo L & Black JM 2013. Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans forage at both tides on Humboldt Bay, California, USA. Wildfowl Special Issue 3, 90-103.

Gabriel PO & Black JM 2013. Correlates and consequences of the pair bond in Steller's jays. Ethology 119, 178-187.

Rockwell C, Gabriel PO & Black JM 2013. Foraging dynamics in Steller's jays: size and viability of cachable food items. Animal Behaviour 86, 783-789.

Spragans KA, Bjerre ER & Black JM 2013. Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans grit acquisition at Humboldt Bay, California, USA. Wildfowl Special Issue 3, 104-115.

Zirpoli J, Black JM & Gabriel PO 2013. Parasites and plumage: an experimental field test of parasite-mediated handicap hypothesis. Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 25, 103-116.


Gabriel PO & Black JM 2012. Behavioural syndromes, partner compatibility, and reproductive performance in Steller's jays. Ethology 118, 1-11.

Gabriel PO & Black JM 2012. Reproduction in Steller's jays: individual characteristics and behavioral strategies. Auk 129, 377-386.

Rockwell C, Gabriel PO, Black JM 2012. Bolder, older, and selective: factors of individual specific foraging strategies in Steller's jays. Behavioral Ecology 23, 676-683.

Shaughnessy FJ, Gilkerson G, Black JM, Ward DH, & M Petrie 2012. Predicted Zostera marina response to sea level rise and availability to foraging black brant in Pacific coast estuaries. Ecological Applications 22, 1743-1761.


Berl JL & Black JM 2011. Vigilance behaviour of American wigeon Anas americana foraging in pastures. Wildfowl 61, 140-149.

Mini AE, Bachman D, Cocke J, Griggs K, Spragens K & Black JM 2011. Aleutian goose recovery: a 10-year review and future prospectus. Wildfowl 61, 3-29.


Black JM, Gress C, Byers J, Jennings E & Ely C 2010. Behaviour of wintering tundra swans Cygnus columbianus columbianus at the Eel River delta and Humboldt Bay, California, USA. Wildfowl 60, 38-51.

Black JM, Lee DE & Ward D 2010. Foraging home ranges of black brant Branta bernicla nigricans during spring stopover at Humboldt Bay, California, USA. Wildfowl 60, 85-94.

Gabriel PO & Black JM 2010. Behavioural syndrome in Steller's jays: the role of time frames in the assessment of behavioural traits. Animal Behaviour 80, 689-697.


Black JM 2009. River otter monitoring by citizen science volunteers in northern California: social groups and litter size. Northwestern Naturalist 90, 130-135.

Mini A & Black JM 2009. Expensive traditions: energy expenditure of Aleutian geese in traditional and recently colonized habitats. Journal of Wildlife Management 73, 385-391.

Oldham AR & Black JM 2009. Experimental tests of latrine use and communication by river otters. Northwestern Naturalist 90, 207-211.

Penland T & Black JM 2009. Seasonal variation in river otter diet in coastal northern California. Northwestern Naturalist 90, 233-237.


Kanarek AR, Lamberson RH & Black JM 2008. An individual-based model for traditional foraging behavior: investigating effects of environmental fluctuation. Natural Resource Modeling 21, 93-116.


Black JM, Prop J & Larsson K 2007. Wild goose dilemmas: population consequences of individual decisions in barnacle geese. Branta Press. Groningen, The Netherlands.

Lee DE, Black JM, Moore JE & Sedinger JS 2007. Age-specific stopover ecology of black brant at Humboldt Bay, California. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119, 9-22.


Moore J & BlackJM 2006. Slave to the tides: spatio- temporal foraging dynamics of spring staging black brant. Condor 108, 661–677.

Moore J & Black JM 2006. Historical changes in brant Branta bernicla nigricans use on Humboldt Bay, California. Wildlife Biology 12, 151-162.


Black JM 2005. The ecology of social behaviour. In: Ducks, geese and swans of the world, Ed. J. Kear. Oxford University Press; 57-67.

Branta sandvicensis. In: Ducks, geese and swans of the world, Ed. J. Kear. Oxford University Press; 316-321.

Black JM & Owen M 2005. Barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. In: Ducks, geese and swans of the world, Ed. J. Kear. Oxford University Press; 329-334.

Ward D, Reed A, Sedinger J, Black JM, Dirkson D & Castelli D 2005. North American Brant: effects of changes in habitat and climate on population dynamics Global Change Biology 11, 869-880.


Black JM, Springer P, Nelson ET, Griggs KM, Taylor T, Thompson ZD, Maguire A & Jacobs J 2004. Site selection and foraging behavior of Aleutian Canada geese in anewly colonized spring staging area. Page 106-113 in T. J. Moser, K. C. VerCauteren, R. D. Lien, K. F. Abraham, D. E. Andersen, J. G. Bruggink, J. M. Coluccy, D. A. Graber, J. Leafloor, D. R. Luukkonen, and R. E. Trost, editors. Proceedings of the 2003 International Canada Goose Symposium, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Griggs KM & Black JM 2004. Assessment of a western Canada goose translocation: Landscape use, movement patterns and population viability. Page 214-222 in T. J. Moser, K. C. VerCauteren, R. D. Lien, K. F. Abraham, D. E. Andersen, J. G. Bruggink, J. M. Coluccy, D. A. Graber, J. Leafloor, D. R. Luukkonen, and R. E. Trost, editors. Proceedings of the 2003 International Canada Goose Symposium, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Lee DE, Hamman MG & Black JM 2004. Grit-site selection of black brant: particle size or calcium content? Wilson Bulletin 116, 304-313.

Moore, J, Colwell M, Mathis R & Black JM 2004. Staging of Pacific flyway brant in relation to eelgrass abundance and site isolation, with special consideration of Humboldt Bay, California. Biological Conservation 115, 475-486.


Prop J, Black JM & Shimmings P 2003. Travel schedules to the high arctic: barnacle geese trade-off the timing of migration with accumulation of fat deposits. Oikos 103, 403-414.

Quinn JL, Prop J, Kokorev Y & Black JM 2003. Predator protection or similar habitat in red-breasted goose nesting associations: extremes along a continuum. Animal Behaviour 65, 297-307.


Zillich U & Black JM 2002. Body mass and abdominal profile index in captive Hawaiian geese. Wildfowl 53, 67-77.


Black JM 2001. Fitness consequences of long-term pair bonds in barnacle geese: monogamy in the extreme. Behavioral Ecology 12, 640-645.

Lang A & Black JM 2001. Foraging efficiency in barnacle geese: a functional response to sward height and an analysis of sources of individual variation. Wildfowl 52, 7-20.

Woog F & Black JM 2001. Foraging behaviour and the temporal use of grasslands by Hawaiian geese: implications for management. Studies in Avian Biology 22, 319-328.


Pettifor RA, Caldow RWG, Rowcliffe JM, Goss-Custard JD, Black JM, Hodder KH, Houston AI, Lang A, Webb J 2000. Spatially explicit, individual-based, behavioural models of the annual cycle of two migratory goose populations – model development, theoretical insights and applications. Journal of Applied Ecology 37, 103-135.

Quinn JL, Kokorev Y, Prop J, Fox N, Black JM (2000) Are Peregrine Falcons in Northern Siberia still affected by organochlorines? In: Meyburg BU, Chancellor RD (Eds) Proceedings of the 5th World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls, Johannesburg. Hancock Press, Blaine, Washington.


Banko PC, Black JM, Banko, WC 1999. Hawaiian goose (Nene) (Branta sandvicensis). In: The Birds of North America. No. 434 (Eds. A Poole & F Gill). The Birds of North America, Inc. Philadelphia, PA.

Black JM, Patterson D, Shimmings P & Rees EC 1999. Barnacle goose numbers on the Solway Firth: a 1990-1996. Scottish Birds 20, 49-62.

Hunter J, Black JM, Rusev I, Michev T & Munteanu D 1999. The red-breasted goose Branta ruficollis. In: Goose populations of the Western Palearctic. A review of status and distribution. (Ed. J Madsen, G Cracknell & AD Fox), Wetlands International Publication 48, 328-341.

Loonen MJJE, Bruinzeel LW, Black JM, Drent RH 1999. The benefit of large broods in barnacle geese: a study of natural and experimental manipulations. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 753-768.

Owen M & Black JM 1999. Barnacle goose Branta leucopsis: Svalbard. In: Goose populations of the Western Palearctic. A review of status and distribution. (Eds. J Madsen, G Cracknell & AD Fox), Wetlands International Publication 48, 258-269. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands, National Environmental Research Institute, Kalö, Denmark.

Siriwardena GM & Black JM 1999. Parent and gosling strategies in wintering barnacle geese. Wildfowl 49, 18-26.


Black JM 1998. Threatened waterfowl: recovery priorities and reintroduction potential with special reference to the Hawaiian goose. In: Avian Conservation: research and management (JM Marzluff & R Shallabanks), Pg. 125-140. Acedemic Press, New York and London.

Black, J.M. 1998. Movement of barnacle geese between colonies in Svalbard and the colonisation process. Norsk Polarinst. Skr. 200, 115-127.

Black, J.M. 1998. Flyway plan for the Svalbard population of barnacle geese: a summary. Norsk Polarinst. Skr. 200, 29-40.

Black JM, Cooch EG, Loonen M, Drent R & Owen M 1998. Body size variation in a barnacle goose metapopulation: evidence for saturation of local habitats. Norsk Polarinst. Skr. 200, 129-140.

Drent RH, Black JM, Prop J & Loonen MJJE 1998. Barnacle geese Branta leucopsis on Nordenskiöldkysten, west Spitsbergen - in thirty years from colonisation to saturation. Norsk Polarinst. Skr. 200, 105-114.

Lang A, Houston A, Black JM, Pettifor RA, Rowcliffe M 1998. From individual feeding performance to predicting population dynamics in barnacle geese: introduction of the spring model. Norsk Polarinst. Skr. 200, 203-211.

Madsen J, Clausen P & Black JM 1998. Status of the three Svalbard goose populations. Norsk Polarinst. Skr. 200, 7-17.

Mehlum F, Black JM & Madsen J (eds) 1998. Research on Arctic Geese. Proceedings of the Svalbard Goose Symposium, Oslo, Norway, 23-26 September 1997. Pp. 320.

Mitchell CR, Black JM & Evans M 1998. Breeding biology of cliff versus island-nesting barnacle geese in Svalbard. Norsk Polarinst. Skr. 200, 141-146.

Pettifor RA, Black JM, Owen M, Rowcliffe JM & Patterson D 1998. Growth of the Svalbard barnacle goose Branta leucopsis winter population 1958-1996: An initial review of temporal demographic changes. Norsk Polarinst. Skr. 200, 147-164.

Prop J & Black JM 1998. Food intake, body reserves and reproductive success of barnacle geese Branta leucopsis staging in different habitats. Norsk Polarinst. Skr. 200, 175-193.

Prop J, Black JM, Shimmings P & Owen M 1998. The spring range of barnacle geese Branta leucopsis in relation to changes in land management and climate. Biological Conservation 86, 339-346.

Rave L, Fleischer RC, Duvall F & Black JM 1999. Effects of inbreeding on reproductive success incaptive populations of Hawaiian geese. Wildfowl 49, 36-44.

Rowcliffe JM, Pettifor RA & Black JM 1998. Modelling the dynamics of winter barnacle goose flocks: A progress report. Norsk Polarinst. Skr. 200, 195-201.

Tombre I, Black JM & Loonen MJJE 1998. Critical components in the dynamics of a barnacle goose colony: a sensitivity analysis. Norsk Polarinst. Skr. 200, 81-89.


Black, JM 1997. Branta leucopsis. Barnacle goose. BWP Update, Volume 1, 175-182.

Black JM, Marshall AP, Gilburn A, Santos N, Howside H, Medeiros J, Mello J, Natividad Hodges C, Katahira L 1997. Survival, movements and breeding of Hawaiian geese: an assessment of the reintroduction program. Journal of Wildlife Management 61, 1161-1173.


Black JM (ed) 1996. Partnerships in birds. The study of monogamy. Oxford University Press. pp. 420.

Black JM 1996. Introduction: pair bonds and partnerships. In: Partnerships in birds. The study of monogamy. (Ed. JM Black) pp. 3-20. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Black JM 1996. The snow geese of La Perouse Bay. Natural selection in the wild. By F Cooke, RF Rockwell & DB Lank. Animal Behaviour 52, 214-215.

Black JM, Choudhury S & Owen M 1996. Do geese benefit from life-long monogamy? In: Partnerships in birds. The study of monogamy. (Ed. JM Black) pp. 91-117. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Choudhury S, Black JM & Owen M 1996. Body size, compatibility and fitness in barnacle geese. Ibis 138, 175-183.

Ens BJ, Choudhury S & Black JM 1996. Mate fidelity and divorce in birds. In: Partnerships in birds. The study of monogamy. (Ed. JM Black) pp. 344-401. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hunter J & Black JM 1996 . Conservation action for red-breasted geese. In: Globally threatened birds in Europe: Action Plans. (Eds. B Heredia, L Rose & M Painter) pp. 79-88. Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg.

Tombre IM, Erikstad KE, Gabrielsen GW, Strann K-B and Black JM 1996. Body condition and spring migration in high arctic barnacle geese. Wildlife Biology 2, 247-251.


Bailey T & Black JM 1995. Parasites of wild and captive Nene Branta sandvicensis in Hawaii. Wildfowl 46, 59-65.

Bigot E, Hausberger M & Black JM 1995. Exuberant youth: the example of triumph ceremonies in barnacle geese. Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 7, 11-25.

Black JM 1995. The Nene recovery initiative: research against extinction. Ibis 137, S153-S160.

Black JM & Owen M 1995. Reproductive performance and assortative pairing in relation to age in barnacle geese. Journal of Animal Ecology 64, 234-244.


Black JM & Banko PC 1994. Is the Hawaiian goose saved from extinction? In: Creative Conservation - the interface between captive and wild animals , Ed. PJS Olney, GM Mace & ATC Feistner, pp.394-410. Chapman & Hall, London.

Black JM, Prop J, Hunter J, Woog F, Marshall AP and Bowler JM 1994. Foraging behaviour and energetics of the Hawaiian goose Branta sandvicensisWildfowl 45, 65-109.

Choudhury C & Black JM 1994. Barnacle geese preferentially pair with familiar associates from early life. Animal Behaviour 48, 81-88.

Hausberger M, Richard JP, Black JM & Quirs R 1994. Quantitative analysis of individuality in barnacle goose loud calls. Bioacustics 5, 247-260.

Rave L, Fleischer RC, Duvall F & Black JM 1994. Genetic analysis through DNA fingerprinting of captive populations of Hawaiian geese. Conservation Biology 8, 744-751.


Bell MC, Fox AD, Owen M, Black JM & Walsh AJ 1993. Approaches to estimation of survival in two arctic-nesting goose species. In: Marked individuals in the study of bird population dynamics (eds J-D Lebreton & PM North) pp. 141-155, Basal: Birkhauser Verlag.

Choudhury S & Black JM 1993. Mate choice strategies in geese: evidence for a "partner-hold" strategy. Animal Behaviour 46, 747-757.

Choudhury C, Jones C, Black JM & Prop J 1993. Adoption of young and intraspecific nest parasitism barnacle geese. Condor 95, 860-868.

Green A, Black JM & Ellis-Joseph S 1993. Conservation planning for globally threatened Anseriforms. In: Waterfowl and wetland conservation in the 1990s - a global perspective (eds. M Moser, RC Prentice and J van Vessem), IWRB Special Publication 26, 128-133.


Black JM, Carbone C, Owen M & Wells R 1992. Foraging dynamics in goose flocks: the cost of living on the edge. Animal Behaviour 44, 41-50.

Choudhury S, Black JM & Owen M 1992. Do barnacle geese pair assortatively? lessons from a long-term study. Animal Behaviour 44, 171-173.

Owen M, Wells RC & Black JM 1992. Energy budgets of wintering barnacle geese: the effects of declining food resources. Ornis Scandinavica 23, 451-458.

Marshall A & Black JM 1992. The effect of rearing experience on subsequent behaviour traits in captive-reared Hawaiian geese: implications for the re‑introduction programme. Bird Conservation International 2, 131-147.


Black JM, Deerenberg C & Owen M 1991. Foraging behaviour and site selection of barnacle geese in a traditional and newly colonized spring staging area. Ardea 79, 349-358.

Owen M & Black JM 1991. A note on migration mortality and its significance to goose population dynamics. Ardea 79, 195-196.

Owen M & Black JM 1991. The importance of migration mortality in non passerine birds. In: Bird Population Studies: relevance to conservation and management (ed. C.M. Perrins, J D. Lebreton & G.J.M. Hirons), pp. 360 372. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Choudhury S & Black JM 1991. Testing the dominance and dispersal hypothesis in pochard. Ornis Scandinavica 22, 155-159.

Black JM, Duvall, F, Howside H, Medeiros J, Natividad Hodges C, Santos N, and Telfer T 1991. The current status of Hawaiian goose a its recovery programme. Wildfowl 42, 149-154.

Tomlenson, C., Mace G, Black JM & Hewston N. 1991. Management of an inbred species: the white‑winged wood duck. Wildfowl 42, 123-133.

Owen M & Black JM 1991. Geese and their future fortunes. Ibis 133 suppl. 1, 28-35.

Hausberger M, Black JM & Pichard JP 1991. Bill opening and sound spectrum in barnacle goose loud calls: individuals with "wide mouths" have higher pitched voices. Animal Behaviour 42, 319-322.

Rees EC, Black JM, Spray CJ & Thorisson S 1991. Breeding success of whooper swans nesting in upland and lowland regions of Iceland. Ibis 133, 365-373.

Adret-Hausberger M & Black JM 1991. Female song in European starlings: the case of non-competitive song-matching. Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 3, 337-344.

Black JM 1991. Guidelines for bird recovery programmes: re-introduction and re-stocking. Bird Conservation International 1, 329-334.


Owen M & Black JM 1990. Waterfowl Ecology. Glasgow, Blackie Publ., pp. 194.

Hausberger M & Black JM 1990. Do females turn males on and off in barnacle goose social display? Ethology 84, 232-238.


Black JM & Owen M 1989. Parent‑offspring relationships in wintering barnacle geese. Animal Behaviour 37, 187-198.

Black JM & Owen M 1989. Agonistic behaviour in goose flocks: assessment, investment and reproductive success. Animal Behaviour 37, 199-209.

Owen M & Black JM 1989. Factors affecting the survival of barnacle geese on migration from the wintering grounds. Journal Animal Ecology 58, 603-618.

Prestrud P, Black JM & Owen M 1989. The relationship between an increasing population of barnacle geese and the number and size of their colonies in Svalbard. Wildfowl 40, 32-38.

Owen M & Black JM 1989. Barnacle goose. In: Lifetime Reproduction in Birds , (Ed. by Ian Newton), pp. 349 362. London: Academic Press.


Black JM 1988. Preflight signalling in swans: a mechanism for group cohesion and flock formation. Ethology 79, 143-157.

Black JM & Owen M 1988. Variations in pair bond and agonistic behaviors in barnacle geese on the wintering grounds. In: Waterfowl in Winter (Ed. M. Weller), pp. 39 57. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Owen M, Black JM & Liber H 1988. Pair bond duration and the timing of its formation in barnacle geese. In: Waterfowl in Winter (Ed. M. Weller), 23 38. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Mitchell C, Black JM, Owen M & West J 1988. On renesting in semi-captive barnacle geese. Wildfowl 39, 133-136.


Black JM & Owen M 1987. Determinant factors of social rank in goose flocks: acquisition of social rank in young geese. Behaviour 102, 129-146.

Owen M, Black JM, Agger MC & Campbell CRG 1987. The use of the Solway Firth by an increasing population of barnacle geese in relation to changes in refuge management. Biological Conservation 39, 63-81.


Black JM 1986. Foot-slapping: a territorial advertisement display by a mute swan. British Birds 79, 500-501.

West J, Black JM, Nugent M & Owen M 1986. Second-brooding in semi-captive barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis). Wildfowl 37, 51-54.

Barrow JH Jr, Black JM & Walter B 1986. Behaviour patterns and their function in the horned screamer. Wildfowl 37, 156-162.

Salmon DG & Black JM 1986. Results of the January 1986 whooper swan census in Britain, Ireland and Iceland. Wildfowl 37, 172-174.


Black JM & Barrow JH Jr 1985. Visual signalling in Canada geese for the coordination of family units. Wildfowl 36, 35-41.


Black JM & Owen M 1984. The importance of the family unit to barnacle goose offspring: a progress report. Norsk Polarinstitute Skrifter 181, 79-85.

Black JM & Rees EC 1984. The structure and behaviour of the population of whooper swans wintering at Caerlaverock, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. Wildfowl 35, 21-36.